The Exodus Decoded
[Music] [Music] in the last scenes of a very famous movie The Lost Ark of the Covenant the box that once held the Ten Commandments is created and abandoned in the basement of a warehouse [Music] what if Hollywood’s depiction accurately reflects reality this would mean at hiding somewhere there’s tangible proof of the story the Bible calls the exodus the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt led by the prophet Moses well right here in this building there’s a 3500 year old gold image carved perhaps by an eyewitness to the biblical exodus of the Lost Ark of the Covenant and the people in there don’t realize it [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] Exodus for thousands of years the biblical epic has captured the human imagination but did it really happen when it comes to the Exodus we have no evidence that it happened and a good deal of evidence that he didn’t they made it up painstaking explain under 150 feet of sand and rock they discovered the ancient omen something must have happened I can’t explain what happened but it shaped ancient Israel’s identity and therefore I can’t dismiss it as a fairy tale in the famed Valley of the Kings where 60 Egyptian pharaohs were buried minster splendor the world has never equal archaeologists what can you dig up which is going to prove the Exodus what what would you have to find in order to prove the experts the Exodus story is at the very heart of Christianity Judaism and Islam for thousands of years believers have treated it as historical fact but in the past few decades scholars have called the story a fairy tale I’m James Cameron and I know a filmmaker who for nearly a decade has been on a mission to answer a three thousand-year-old question is the Exodus fact or fiction his name is simcha Jakob ovitch and he’s a two-time Emmy winner in investigative journalism he claims that scholars have missed the archaeological evidence that’s hiding in plain sight more than that he seems to have come up with the goods by putting together the long forgotten pieces of the ultimate archaeological mystery how did we do it by tracking down experts from a variety of disciplines who rarely if ever talked to each other none of them fully subscribes to our take on the story but many possess critical pieces of the puzzle and what emerges challenge even the most skeptical but before we show you the evidence that started the story at the beginning the biblical tale begins when the Hebrew patriarch Jacob escapes drought in the land of Canaan modern Israel and moves to the land of plenty the land of the pyramids ancient Egypt they’re Jacobs clan the future Israelites flourish in their new environment in fact Jacobs son Joseph became as powerful as the rulers of Egypt the Pharaohs and yet after Joseph dies his people are enslaved by the ruling Egyptians [Music] more than a century later the Egyptians became afraid of revolution and instituted a policy of drowning all the Israelite male infants it was at this point Jacob’s great-great grandson was born to avoid death the infant was hidden in the bulrushes where he was found by Pharaoh’s daughter the princess adopted him and named him Moses when Moses grew up he sided with his oppressed brethren and fled into the desert 60 years later he returned to utter the unforgettable cry let my people go 10 times Pharaoh said no to Moses and 10 times God struck Egypt with catastrophic plagues ultimately killing all Egyptian firstborn males finally farrell let the Israelites go but then changed his mind and pursued Moses and his followers to the edge of the sea look like the Israelites were trapped but then the impossible happened the sea parted and the Israelites crossed to safety Moses now led his followers to Mount Sinai where they received the Ten Commandments the sacred laws they would take with them to the promised land most scholars believe this story is a myth so even when the evidence is staring them in the face they ignore it the most dramatic example of this took place in 1947 when archaeologists unleashed chef Leah found pieces of a broken stone monument or stella dating to a pharaoh named joseph around 1500 before the Common Era or vce incredibly the Osmos Estela is covered in hieroglyphic inscriptions that mirror the biblical tale today it lies abandoned in the basement of the Cairo Museum and all our attempts to get access to it were unsuccessful so using chevaliers published description we reconstructed the Stella and got one of the world’s leading Egyptologists to comment on it we have this very interesting stealer which is dated to the reign of F Massey it records a tremendous catastrophe that happened to Egypt we’re not quite clear what it was but it involved rain and thunder and lightning and a such a storm that rarely happens in Northeast Africa I mean that’s a dry area it sounds peculiar to me that the biblical tradition preserves the memory of plagues you know which involve climatic cataclysms and here we have from the very time is curious Stila this curious Stella mean fact hold the key to the Exodus enigma let’s take a closer look the Bible says that at the time of the exodus there was a great storm Osmos Estela also talks of a great storm the Bible says darkness descended on Egypt Estela says that Egypt was enveloped in darkness [Music] the Stella then says something very peculiar those Egyptians worshiped many gods on this teller it is written that the storm and the darkness happened when God in the singular manifested his power the Bible describes Pharaoh but never names because of this Stella we now know his name Osmos it and now that we know who he is maybe it’s time that we met him this is the Cairo Museum home to some of the most famous mummies ever unearthed we came here in search of Pharaoh Osmos it the man who we believe is the Pharaoh of the Exodus at first we couldn’t locate him but we did locate his father second enry cows ii if we are right this is one of the pharaohs who oppress the Israelites according to most scholars his cow had been crushed by enemy axes perhaps those enemies were Israelites smashing his mummy as they left on the Exodus we continued on our search for Ozma said it was hard to locate him because he had been sort of misfiled but we did locate one of his two wives under some debris in one of the museum’s workshops I revealed according to our calculations this somewhat discarded glass coffin contains the mummy of a woman whose husband contended with Moses and hardened his heart to God himself at last we located Barrow MOC here is the man who confronted Moses [Music] can it be that a Moses father remembered the Israelite Prince he grew up with and when he gave his son his Egyptian name moc the moon is born he chose the name because of a play on words in Hebrew Ozma simmias the brother of Moses [Music] in history fair osmosis most famous for expelling a foreign nation from Egypt around 1500 BCE at the time Egypt was ruled by a people that the ancients called hexes until recently little was known about the Hyksos then in the 1960s their ancient capital a virus was discovered north of Cairo [Music] no one has ever been allowed to film a divorce to get there we needed the cooperation of the Egyptian authorities they’re concerned that in the volatile Middle East the discovery of biblical artifacts will somehow strengthen modern Israel’s claims in the area as a result the Exodus is a touchy subject in Egypt today so we didn’t mention Moses and we stressed that we were interested in Pharaoh Osmo sake and the Hyksos he drove out of Egypt after months of negotiations were finally given permits to shoot at a virus [Music] [Music] this is a virus a walled city dominated by palaces 3,500 years ago it was surrounded by branches of the Nile the virus was discovered by professor manfred bietak of the university of vienna although only a few acres are exposed today in ancient times a virus seems to have dominated the area a virus itself was much bigger it was 250 hectares so it extended from here to the east about 2 kilometers and from here to the south steps even one kilometer in the richest period this was one of the major residence of Egyptian pharaohs Egyptian history clearly states that the Hyksos who ruled mighty a virus were Semites like the Israelites and that they left on a mass exodus known as the Hyksos expulsion we have in the Bible the story of the Semites leaving Egypt and going eastward from Egypt at the same time independent of the Bible we have a story of the Hyksos being expelled from Egypt I think definitely the two stories are related they’re describing the same event from different viewpoints if the Hyksos expulsion and the biblical Exodus are really one and the same event then perhaps we can find the long sought-after proof for the biblical Exodus during the Hyksos period but most scholars say that the Hyksos and the Israelites cannot be equated because the Hyksos left Egypt hundreds of years before Moses was born these scholars also say that the chronology of ancient Egypt cannot be tampered with you can play with Egyptian dates you can move them up maybe ten years and down ten years but you can’t move up up and down 50 or a hundred years that’s not possible and yet many people try to do that they try to adjust chronology to fit their predetermined notion of biblical history you can’t do it but maybe we have to what if scholars are placing the Exodus in the wrong time period imagine the confusion if in the future scholars date World War two to the 1990s he’ll never find any evidence that it actually happened currently most scholars date the exodus to 1270 BCE during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses the second but some scholars are now breaking with that consensus the Bible gives information that would put the Exodus about 480 years before the early years of Solomon in the middle of the 15th century BC professor Benson’s calculations move the exodus from its present date to 1470 BCE less than 100 years from the traditional date for the Hyksos expulsion these are too close to write off as a coincidence so we have a new date for the Exodus approximately 1500 BCE the Hyksos and the Hyksos expulsion is what we’re talking about when we are talking about the exodus all right our new date for the Exodus is 1500 BC we know from the Bible but the Israelites arrived in Egypt some 200 years before their Exodus in the original Hebrew the Bible calls the Israelites God’s people or amo Ezra if we write about our dates there should be hard archaeological evidence for the arrival of these ammo around 1700 BCE 400 kilometers south of of eros is the tomb at Beni Hasan it dates to 1700 BCE because no one has looked for evidence of the exodus in this period the tomb has never been linked to the biblical story and yet there is a perfectly preserved wall painting here that records an ancient migration into Egypt from the area of modern Ezra [Music] as in the Bible the scene involves bearded Semites riding donkeys and bringing their families and flocks into Egypt like the biblical Israelites they are wearing multicolored tunics the hieroglyphic inscription on this wall calls these people the amo gods people looking in the right place during the right time we are the first to recognize a veritable snapshot of the migration of the biblical Israelites to Egypt the Bible records that at the time of their arrival one israelite rose to the highest levels of Egyptian power his name was Joseph son of Yaakov Jacob in English and he became so powerful that he wore on his finger the seal of royal authority discovering Joseph’s seal at Avaris would prove that the Israelites arrived here exactly when our timeline predicts that would be like finding a needle in a 3700 year old the archaeological haystack [Music] [Music] incredibly the tiny seal was found precisely at the archaeological layer we anticipated in fact professor manfred bietak found no less than nine seals worn by Joseph’s court officials and scribed right on them is the Hebrew name Yaakov Joseph’s father it’s very strange that we found nine seals with the name Yakov here it’s a biblical name by the way the original was probably mounted on a ring worn on the finger and this gives us a new puzzle is it really a puzzle not if one uses our chronologies this is the only time that a Hebrew name appears on an Egyptian royal seal it directly connects a virus with a Bible i professor be tax tears clear of biblical chronology he’s under the constant watch of the Egyptian Antiquities Authority who have made a forest off-limits to the public supposedly for conservation reasons professor btik has been forced to cover up his dig every single year the areas then cloud seeded and cultivated by local farmers no one would suspect that underneath these fields lies an archaeological treasure trove that proves the biblical Exodus [Music] now that we found hard evidence for the arrival of the Israelites in Egypt and their rise to power and when searching for archaeological proof of their downfall in the slavery that led to the Exodus in search of the evidence we had to travel to a place called Sarah beat al Haddad 400 kilometers south of the Nile Delta into the Sinai desert Bishop [Music] for thousands of years Egyptians mined turquoise in this area often they used slave labor the ancient turquoise mines are off the beaten tourist track the only ones who know their way in this area are the better ones who still live at the foot of the mines I heard once that the Bedouins they can do like the Prophet Musa that they know which rocks have water in them they break it is that true we got here here our respects to the local Sheikh and recruited one of his sons to show us the way ok let’s go we learned of this place from old papers published in obscure journals we came here to find proof of the slaves that Moses led to freedom but even if we found evidence for the presence of slaves how could we be sure that they were is relax the Bible provides us with two clues first the followers of Moses did not use hieroglyphic writing like the Egyptians rather the biblical tradition states that they used an early form of alphabetic writing also the Israelites did not worship Egyptian gods but a single God that the Bible calls el [Music] to support our new biblical timeline we needed to find alphabetic inscriptions carved by slaves some 3,500 years ago in our wildest dreams it would also mention the biblical God el and sure enough there are slave inscriptions here and one of them records a 3500 year old cry L saved me this is the writing on a slave a slave who worked in this minor to still see the chisel marks which were part of the forced labor that the author of the subscription was involved in and he wrote his cry to God saying help me don’t forget me here where he worked and he slept he probably died and it represents an incredible moment in human history not only is the first inscription that records the name of God l but it also records the oldest or maybe the second oldest alphabetic inscription it’s the basis which Hebrew Aramaic Greek Latin English Arabic all is based on this writing pretty incredible and after all these years we would be here to record this man’s cry – Moses Stella Beni Hassan tomb paintings Joseph’s royal seal and the Israelite slavery inscriptions all point to approximately 1500 BCE as the date for Moses and the Exodus if our date is correct then there’s something else that we have to factor in around 1500 BCE people living along the Mediterranean experienced one of the most cataclysmic events in history the eruption of the santorini volcano in modern greece this eruption may be another crucial clue for decoding the biblical Exodus [Music] this is the island of Santorini 700 kilometers from the egyptian coast across the mediterranean it is literally the mouth of a volcano some 3,500 years ago Santorini was destroyed by one of the worst volcanic eruptions in human history when it erupted the volcano essentially brought to an end the Minoan civilization that once flourished here it sent an ash cloud that measured some 40 kilometers straight up and 200 kilometers across the sound of the eruption circled the earth some 10 to 12 times to put this in perspective an eruption like senator reading would be hundreds to thousands of times stronger more explosive than the atom bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima the energy of that eruption was so immense you would have had these huge explosions that were happening and you hear crack crack crack for hundreds of kilometers people around were listening to it we were getting earthquakes probably magnitude three four maybe even five or higher that were happening extremely rapidly and it would have been I’m sure to the people living there as if the world was coming to an end so perhaps the cataclysmic events described in the Bible such as plagues darkness and the parting of a sea are somehow connected to the santorini eruption but like all things related to the Exodus dating the santorini eruption to 1500 BCE and be controversial people have been arguing about the dates of santorini volcanologist and geologists would date the eruption in the 1600s BC archeologists tend to dated in the 1500s been seen digging at Avaris professor b-pack has no doubt that he can pinpoint the santorini eruption to the exact time period where we place the exodus here boom is from the Santorini eruption appears for the first time so from archaeological point of view it looks very much as if the eruption happens early in the eighteenth dynasty let us say around 1500 BC Jakub Oh bitches chronology machine has now synchronized a pharaoh named off mozi the Hyksos expulsion the Exodus and the Santorini eruption it appears that the exodus code has finally been cracked if Jakob ovitch is right we can now explain the science underlying the biblical story we can even explain what caused the greatest miracle of them all the parting of the Red Sea we can then trace the biblical map and discover the real Mount Sinai where the Exodus story came to a climax when Moses received the Ten Commandments and place them in the now Lost Ark of the Covenant let’s begin with the plagues the biblical catastrophes that struck Egypt because Pharaoh wouldn’t let the Israelite slaves go until now no one has come up with a comprehensive scientific explanation for all and plagues the answer began to take shape for us after we returned to the earth most Estela and discovered an amazing synchronicity with the biblical text the Bible says that the God of Israel passed judgment on the gods of Egypt and the stella confirms that the statues of the gods of egypt were toppled to the ground earthquakes are known to accompany volcanic eruptions like Santorini it seems that the Stella and the Bible are describing the results of an earthquake or more precisely what scientists now call an earthquake storm earthquake storms are sequences of large earthquakes that sweep across a large areas and the best examples are the eastern Mediterranean where we have wrong historical and archaeological records as it turns out the biblical story takes place in an earthquake zone the Nile Delta where the Bible says the exodus took place is criss-crossed by fault lines to the east the Great Rift fault separating the Asian and African plates runs through the Sea of Galilee the Dead Sea and the Red Sea all the way to Africa in addition there is a fault line that runs along the modern Suez Canal and another fault line that runs along the Nile Delta under ancient of Aris meanwhile some 700 kilometers to the west the rift between the African plate and the European plate runs practically under Santorini at what do earthquakes have to do with the biblical plagues well let’s begin with the first plague earthquakes can’t possibly explain how Moses turned the Niles waters into blood can they in fact they can when they trigger gas leaks and we don’t have to go back 3,500 years to prove the points in 1984 at Lake Manu and in 1986 at Lake Neos both in Cameroon the sweet clear lake waters suddenly turned blood-red the mystery was solved when Professor George clink explained the phenomenon in terms of an underground gas leak what was happening was that the bottom waters contain very high concentrations of iron dissolved iron and when that was mixed up to the surface when the gas was released it contacted oxygen and it formed an iron hydroxide essentially rust the same thing that happens a lot on cars and that rust was what caused the reddish brownish color at the surface of the lake when it comes to the biblical plagues along the Nile Delta there there are many elements that are present that that could suggest a buildup of gas so we could have a situation where gas beneath the earth is trapped in pockets and earthquakes along the fault line then release that gas and depending on the kind of water that that gas goes through it could even turn that water red if the Nile turned blood-red as a result of a gas leak then the chain of events described in the Bible would have been set into motion the first thing that happens in such circumstances is that the water becomes devoid of oxygen and all living things in it die the fish then begin to float in the polluted waters rotting in the Sun the only things that do not die are frogs unlike fish they can hop out and as it turns out biblical plague number two is a frog infestation the lack of clean water then leads to lice slides and bacterial epidemics among humans and domestic animals not surprisingly biblical plague number three is lice plate number four his flies plague number five is an epidemic plague 6 is boils and blisters man and beast can an earthquake induced gas leak explain this kind of outbreak let’s go back to the 1986 disaster at Lake Neos Cameroon at the time people living along the lake develop strange boils and burns it turns out that carbon dioxide mixed with air put people into a kind of coma reducing circulation to the skin and causing the kind of boils described in the Bible as plague number 6 despite the first six plagues the Bible records that Pharaoh still refused to let the Israelite slaves go so Egypt was now struck by plague number seven hail it was a very unusual hail involving ice and fire mixed together to this day rabbis teach that the biblical description is no metaphor 7 plague was the plague of hail but the Bible describes how in a very unique manner the hail was together with ash with fire the idea being that the fire and the ice commingled together they coexisted together the Bible then describes God is making a miracle within a miracle taking opposites in nature and having them coexist together incredibly there is an Egyptian papyrus that tells the exact same story it’s called the Apple are pop iris and it’s dated by many scholars to the Higgs sauce period the Ybor papyrus specifically states that Egypt was struck by a strange hail made up of ice and fire mingled together another piece of the puzzle has fallen into place it now seems clear that the biblical and Egyptian texts are describing what scientists call accretionary appealing volcanic hail that could only have come from the earthquake induced santorini volcano when the ash cloud goes up to two great distances in the stratosphere essentially what happens is you have moisture in the atmosphere you also have a lot of water vapor in the cloud itself so the small fragments of ash and crystals actually form a nucleus something very similar to a hailstorm in other words Egypt experienced fire and ice raining from above just as the Bible describes it seems that earthquakes and the resulting volcanic and gas eruptions neatly explained the first seven biblical plagues they also explained plague number eight locusts locus migrate and swarms there can be between 40 and 80 million adult locusts in each square kilometer cold weather produces a drop in their body temperature and makes them land unmask the volcanic hail and the weather disruptions caused by the Santorini eruption would have forced great clouds of locusts which are common in this part of the world to suddenly land in Egypt as the hailstorm clear and the temperature rose so did the locusts exactly as the biblical account describes gripped by earthquake storms and their consequences Egyptians who are now going to experience the last phase of the Santorini eruption or what the Bible calls plate number nine darkness this is the way it probably worked during the months before the eruption seismic activity in the whole eastern Mediterranean was causing the African plate to grind under the European plate seawater was then turned to steam that bubbled up through the magma this in turn caused pressure to build and erupt through weak points on the surface triggering several small eruptions leading to a major blowout and the final eruption came it created an ash cloud almost 40 kilometers from top to bottom and 200 kilometers across when the ash cloud reached the Nile Delta it engulfed the Egyptians in what the Bible calls a palpable darkness in a matter of a few minutes there plunged into a black world ash is falling around them they can’t see they can’t breathe very well Sun has disappeared you have black overhead and they have no idea what’s gonna happen next the discovery of Santorini pomace a Tavares seems to prove the arrival of the ash cloud in Egypt and explains the biblical description of a prolonged darkness some might argue that since pumice can float it could have been brought to Egypt by waves and washed ashore by tides so we caught up with Professor Jean Daniel Stanley of the Smithsonian Institute he’s made the definitive discovery he found santorini ash in the nile delta it could only have arrived in the ash cloud that plunged egypt into the biblical darkness we had to look through 10 to 20,000 grains to find one hash green so we found a total of 40 hash grains not all ash looks the same ash has a fingerprint aspect the ash particles that we find in the northern in northeastern mountain Delta are individual grains that came in from Santorini there’s very little room for doubt that the exodus account and the descriptions that we have in Egypt of this the volcanic dust coming into Egypt and geological description where we can actually see feel touch and date video the volcanic dust in the Nile that they are describing the same tremendous volcanic event the final plague took place at midnight after Moses ordered the Israelites to sit down to what became known as the first Passover meal while the Israelites were involved in the Passover ritual the Egyptians slept and then it happened every firstborn male Egyptian died every house was affected no one has ever been able to offer a plausible scientific explanation for the death of the firstborn until now according to our scenario at this point in the sequence of events that began some six months earlier the gas leak that set the chain of plagues in motion would have finally erupted carbon dioxide would have seeped to the surface and being heavier than air would have killed animals and sleeping people before it dissipated harmlessly into the atmosphere in case you think all this is conjecture consider this it happened in exactly the same way in 1986 at Lake Neos Cameroon on the fateful night of August 21st the villagers at Neos went to sleep they couldn’t have known that the carbon dioxide gas which had turned the lake blood-red was now reaching a critical point as the people of Lake Neos slept the top of the lake was keeping the carbon down like a cap on a pop bottle but then the earth rumbled and a landslide took place sending rocking to the water disturbing the surface pressure and releasing the gas the gas then rose to the surface and like some alien monster emerged from the water droplets forming on it turning the invisible gas into a visible fog the fog then rolled across the water and across the land suffocating everything in its path and as suddenly as it appeared it disappeared dissolving harmlessly into the atmosphere the next day those who had been sleeping on higher ground woke up to find some 1800 people dead hundreds of cattle and small animals also dead all around there was deathly silence I was sitting just sitting among the dead people is that they have some of them were outside animals everywhere lying mouse dogs everything all the family we were 56 but 53 died after the death of the firstborn Pharaoh finally relented letting Moses take his people out of Egypt according to the Bible what made Pharaoh give up was the selectivity of the death the fact that he was only male firstborn who died it was this selectivity that demonstrated to him that God himself was involved how can we account for this well Egyptian firstborn males had a privileged position they were the heirs to the throne to property title and more they slept on Egyptian beds low to the ground while their brothers and sisters slept on rooftops sheds and in wagons the Israelites sitting up at their first Passover meal did not feel a thing while the low traveling gas suffocated the privileged Egyptian males sleeping in their beds this conclusion is backed by the archeology at Avaris professor manfred bietak has found mass graves dating to before and during our date for the Exodus the earlier graves are classic examples of ancient epidemics that killed men women and children but at the time of the exodus the mass grave he found was only males in it here you see bones of burials from the early 18th dynasty they are all male victims by the size of the graves and the number of the individuals in the graves within people died in rapid succession and the individuals were just thrown into the pit some of them lying on their stomachs I’m lying on their side some of the pits were just 20 centimeters deep and just some dust put on top of them the Bible says that Pharaoh’s son also died during the plague of the firstborn since we claim that a Hamas a is the Pharaoh of the exodus we should be able to prove that a Moses son died young searching in the Cairo Museum he’s right over there on the shelf there we found osmosis son the prince had died young he was only 12 for the first time ever we can put a face and a name to a victim of the biblical plagues [Music] it seems that the Bible geology and archeology are all telling the same story but skeptics who would like to regard the exodus as myth might resist the idea that it actually happened because this would imply that God does indeed exist believers on the other hand may feel that a scientific explanation of the biblical story takes God out of the equation [Music] but in the book of Exodus God does not suspend nature he manipulates it [Music] in other words according to the Bible we should be able to understand the science behind the miracles and the greatest miracle of them all was the parting of the sea after the death of the Egyptian firstborn males Pharaoh let the Israelites go he then changed his mind and pursued them finding them trapped on the shores of a seat the Hebrew text calls the sea YUM Sufi and it was here where the miracle occurred the sea parted the Israelites crossed to safety and then the waters came back swallowing the entire Egyptian army overturning chariots drowning all the horses and soldiers [Music] for years explorers have searched for evidence of the miracle of the parting of the sea they’ve mounted underwater archeological quests looking for ancient chariots swords and any evidence of drowned Egyptian armies there is a theory that a huge subsurface shelf in the Red Sea could have been exposed for a short time during a powerful storm providing a land bridge for the Israelites to cross if the search has always been unsuccessful would have thought that instead of diving it should have been driving that’s because young-sook Hebrew for the place where Moses parted the waters has for years been mistranslated as Red Sea when in fact the correct translation is Reed seed and reeds growing sweet water not salt water in lakes not oceans we should have been looking for a lake which lake is the Bible referring to when it describes the parting of the Red Sea it goes like this Oh like I almost like a figure eight it’s using our dates for the Exodus we tracked down an ancient artifact that records the precise location of yong-su it also provides us with the first archaeological evidence for the parting of the sea we found a hieroglyphic inscription on the granite monument that tells the entire story of the exodus from Pharaoh’s point of view the Bible calls Moses a king on this stone Moses is called the Prince of the desert the Bible calls the Israelites God’s people the granite calls them the evil ones and then the granite corroborates the miracle of the parting of the sea the symbol can be read by anyone three waves and two knives the part at sea the three water signs one on top of the other is typically used to apply to different types of bodies of water comply to the Nile comply to a marsh comply to the sea but what is not so common is when you have that word in combination with these two knives the fact that you have these two knives associated with it would suggest that this is water that is cut water that is that is divided this might be an allusion to the waters that the Red Sea or the reed sea were divided in X’s chapter 14 I want to examine the text better we got a pressing of the hieroglyphic and as it turns out the Egyptian text doesn’t just mention the parting of the sea when you see the two knives it also mentions a specific location next to where the sea parted the place is called P karate and today archaeologists know exactly where it was enabling us to locate young soothe the place where the Bible states the sea parted the Israelites crossed to safety and human history has changed forever [Music] as an ancient lake that survived until the 1850s when the Suez Canal was put in this ancient lake finally died [Music] professor mantra be talk after conducting thorough study of this this area proposed that this lake was known to the Egyptians as Pato fee the the marshland the marshy sea and the word tooth Egyptian word for reeds is the same word as sooth in Hebrew so that yong-soo he suggested was a name derived from this body of water now is called the el Balah lake [Music] under the ever watchful eye of the Egyptian authorities who traveled to Lake Alabama the exact spot were one of the greatest biblical miracles is supposed to have taken place the salt beds and reeds testify to the fact that at one time the salty waters of the Mediterranean and the sweet waters of Lake el Balah intermingled here behind me is what’s left of Lake Bella you can see the salt marshes you can see the reeds this whole entire area was one big lake or sea but because of the Suez Canal today you can literally walk or drive through the sea of reeds one of the problems most people have today is they pull out a map and they try to find out where were these places that the Bible is talking about but you can’t use a modern-day map you have to use a map that three thousand years older and we are working on this by taking satellite images where we can actually see the depressions from ancient Lakes and so we can actually begin to understand what the northeastern Delta Egypt was like 3,500 years ago identifying the precise location of young tzuf means that we can finally explain the miracle of the parting of the sea this satellite photo clearly demonstrates that lake el Balah is close to the edge of the Nile Delta where soap accumulates and collapses from time to time as pharaoh chased the israelites to the shores of lake el Balah the extreme seismic activity that caused the ten plagues and the santorini eruption would have now caused the delta to start sliding into the eastern Mediterranean and there’s millions of tons of soil moved forward the edge of the African plate which had now been released from its burden must have risen between one and one and a half meters in other words the sea parted water would have cascaded from higher ground to lower ground and drained from pools and sinkholes creating dry land for the Israelites to cross at this point further seismic activity or another collapse of the Delta would have sent a major tsunami crashing against the coast we get some glimpse of these tidal waves in Turkey where they caught their channeled scablands 30 miles inland and in order to do that at the shore it would have had to be more than half as high these waves as the Empire State Building and that’s exactly the description that we do have in the Bible if the tsunami went a mere twelfth kilometers inland it would have reached like el Balah and engulfed the Egyptian army by this point according to the Bible the Israelites had advanced beyond the reach of the waves as it turns out some of the people that followed Moses across the part at sea and later to Mount Sinai did not follow him to the promised land they boarded ships and sailed in an unknown exodus to Greece why hasn’t anyone noticed because no one thought to look in Greece for evidence of an event that happened in Egypt in fact until recently there was very little archaeological evidence of contact between the Minoan civilization of ancient Greece and Egypt at the time of Moses all that changed with two great discoveries the first was in 1972 when digging under the ash at Santorini archaeologists made a startling discovery linking this area of the world with the Exodus they found unusual Minoan style wall paintings incredibly among them there is a map depicting an ancient journey from Egypt to Greece the whole scene may be considered as the earliest the oldest map in the world the map is breathtaking the colors as vibrant today as 3500 years ago it depicts an epic journey from Egypt to Santorini the voyage is complete with a terrible storm at sea working even further back we see that the ancient sailors sailed past Egyptian fauna and palm trees in the Nile Delta the map then follows the river inland and ends up in a magical city on a kind of river bound island this mysterious city is surrounded by high walls with multi-storied houses elegant ladies peering from the rooftops and a rich harbour at the time there was only one port in Egypt that fits the city in the map the fabled a virus until late in the 20th century there was no archaeological proof of contact between a virus and the Minoans of Santorini then in 1992 perfectly preserved Minoan paintings were discovered at Avaris proving that in biblical times this city was populated not only by Israelites but also by people from ancient Greece most people do not realize that there was not only contact between the Minoan world and the Egyptians it was very intense contact it contact and trade contacting ideas we have the Egyptians referring to the Minoans as the only other civilization that they consider civilized it was not a military presence in Egypt it was actually a trade presence so we now know that there was intimate contact between Greece and Egypt at the time of the exodus as a result it’s perfectly reasonable to assume that some of the followers of Moses came from the area of ancient Greece and it’s quite possible that some of these people returned to Greece after the exodus the Bible says that Moses and his followers left Egypt with great quantities of swords and Egyptian gold 3,500 years after the fact is there any chance of finding Israelite swords and Egypt’s golden treasures in Greece this is Mycenae 50 kilometers from the coast on the Greek mainland in 1876 the famous archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann the excavator of Troy made a world-shaking discovery at Mycenae here he found 3500 year old tombs the tombs are incredible with long shafts leading to vaulted ceilings they were built in the shadow of a mountain that has the shape of a pyramid surprisingly they contained a treasure trove of swords and Egyptian gold Sleiman believed that the gold belonged to homers Agamemnon who led the war against Troy for the sake of the beautiful Helen but scholars soon discovered that the people who were buried in the tombs lived about three hundred years before Agamemnon they lived around 1500 BCE is it possible that here lie some of the followers of Moses the answer is on the tombstones that we now know were placed on top of the death chambers the meaning of the images on the gravestones has never been deciphered until now [Music] if you ask scholars what is it you say well it looks like a hunt but there’s no animal or it looks like a battle but there’s no two people fighting let’s look at it and let’s see what in fact do the grave stelae of Mycenae actually testify to if we just look at it very simply without any prejudice and without any preconceptions I almost want to whisper some kind of secret because nobody realizes that they have a 3500 year old movie if you will three frames of the parting of the sea and they don’t know they don’t know it but look at it just look at it it’s so clear frame number 1 you see waves on top and waves on the bottom you actually literally see the parting with sea and this guy is on a chariot chasing Moses who’s holding a staff that’s frame number 1 and right over here you just have frame number 2 in the movie that the water is gathering into whirlpools what’s happened over here everybody thinks the man or the staff is the loser but he’s actually turned around he’s turned around he’s facing his enemy he’s occupying higher ground and this guy is occupying Laura ground and look there’s a wall of water coming and in the third frame which is another museum even more hidden you see this guy’s being overturned the water is engulfing them the horses are upended and the story is complete but what do the experts say in this very example the options can be mainly to either he is a warrior in a battle scene and he’s the enemy he’s chasing the enemy in the enemy he’s trying to escape holding his wood and the second option may be the chariot race scene so this guy’s this is kind of an ancient Olympics this guy’s an official and this guy is racing around he is bearing a sward as well and he’s holding his fort this doesn’t look like much of a sword looks more like a staff to me yes in this case it’s an abstract depiction it’s not a naturalist the big ship so we cannot say much to understand what’s going on here all you have to do is actually take this 3d image which has been flattened out and just pull it out just pull it out and what you get is the biblical story [Music] when the three stellar put together what we see exactly as depicted in the book of Exodus is an Egyptian charioteer chasing Moses across the part at sea then moses turns and faces his pursuer walls of water rise and come down on the egyptians finally rider chariot and horses are drowned here we have literally carved in stone a visual account of the biblical tale dating back to the very time of Moses and the Exodus the earthquake activity that led to the crossing of the sea would have now led to oil and gas fires in this oil and gas rich area what Moses and his followers would have seen just like the Bible says is a pillar of smoke by day and a pillar of fire by night beckoning them into the desert so if we’ve interpreted the evidence correctly and we are right about the location of the part at sea it can now make sense of distances provided in the Bible maybe we can even locate the legendary Mount Sinai where according to scripture God revealed himself to Moses many would argue that identifying Mount Sinai would be tantamount to corroborating the biblical tale for thousands of years adventurers have attempted to find the elusive mountain and they’ve always ended up in the wrong place the most popular Mount Sinai is at the site of a third century Christian monastery [Music] it is a high mountain in the south of the peninsula and this is where the tourists flock there is only one problem with this site it doesn’t fit a single biblical criteria it’s well off the main transana routes it’s nowhere near the Land of Israel where the Israelites were headed there is not a single plateau that could have accommodated hundreds of thousands of Israelites and since the land is made up of granite there’s hardly any shrubbery to sustain flocks or water to sustain people so where is the mountain of God as they followed Moses into the desert there were only four main routes the Israelites could have taken the northern the southern and two central routes the Bible explicitly states that it wasn’t the northern route geography rules out the souther leaving only the central rules which combined to form a single road leading to the promised land it’s the only road that is possible because to the south of the road there are treacherous mountains and to the north there is arid desert sand dunes this road is an ancient road there are water systems all along it that was the road on which Moses would have fled for his life from Egypt and is the road that he would have taken back finally leading the Israelites out to revelation on Mount Sinai the Bible provides us with three coordinates from Mount Sinai first according to the biblical itinerary Mount Sinai is a 14-day journey from a place called le Alima is now easily identified with a place just south of Lake el Balah call to this day the springs of Moses if a mass of people can walk no more than 15 kilometres a day we can now draw an arc from le that takes us 210 kilometers into the desert this gives us our first coordinate Exodus 3 1 through 2 states that God first appeared to Moses in a burning bush on Mount Sinai at the time Moses was tending his Midianites father-in-law’s flocks Mount Sinai therefore has to be within flock grazing distance of Medina territory the problem is that the Midianites lived in Saudi Arabia not the Sinai Peninsula except for one place a place called Timna here archeologists found the remnants of Midianite flocks and even Midianite wall drawings if Moses was tending Midianite flocks in the Sinai this is the only place it could have capped and based on local flock raising practices Mount Sinai should be no more than 45 kilometres from Timna this gives us our second coordinate the final biblical coordinate in the search for Mount Sinai appears in Deuteronomy 1 2 it states that the mountain of God is an eleven-day journey from a place called Kadesh Barnea today almost all archaeologists identified the biblical Kadesh Barnea with the oasis of Tel L Kudarat in north central Sinai using 15 kilometres a day as our measure we can now draw our last arc into the desert a hundred and sixty-five kilometers from Kadesh Barnea leaving us with a very tiny area that conforms to all the biblical coordinates nonetheless even in this small area there are many mountains but there is a clue that may help us zero in on the precise peak the book of Exodus calls Mount Sinai a holy mountain and holy mountains in the desert are marked by ancient open-air rock sanctuaries yeah look like little excavation that’s amazing in this area there is only one mountain surrounded by sanctuaries today that mountain is called jebel Hashem el tarif very distinct that second piece right there although this entire area is in the middle of a military zone we got to it this mountain perfectly fits all the criteria for Mount Sinai it is surrounded by a huge plateau that could have accommodated hundreds of thousands of Israelites it is easily accessible it literally sits on the main transana highway which follows the topography of the ancient route the mountain is not very high it’s only about 200 meter above the plateau but it is very conspicuous you can see it from distance and the unique point is that it is surrounded by actually the largest concentration of open-air sanctuaries that we know today in the desert if we are right some 3,500 years ago Moses climbed this mountain and received the Ten Commandments on its summit but this is as far as we’re permitted to go our professional camera crew sticks out like a sore thumb in a military zone the Egyptian army forbids us to proceed we cannot climb the mountain to confirm our theory that this is Sinai but we came back without a crew and armed with the only a small camera we had to climb to the top in search of evidence that this was the mountain where Moses received the commandments from God but what would we need to find to prove that this asana the Bible states that Mount Sinai has several unique characteristics if this is the mountain it should have a large cleft in it a natural podium or Moses stood and called out to his people like all holy mountains it would have grave sites of holy men on its summit and there should be evidence of a freshwater spring on top of the mountain an extremely rare characteristic that according to the Bible sets sinai apart from other mountains in this desert when we reached the top we find everything as it should be the cleft looking out to a natural amphitheater from here Moses’s voice would have carried for miles and here are the gravesites each one is a circle of about six meter in diameter and they are built in the shape of a platform each one you can see the barrier cell in the barrier cell nicely built and moved it rarest of all look at this it is the white stuff it appears there was an ancient spring at the top of the mountain this is a 12 and tine which means an accumulation of calcium under wet conditions that integer indicates a nation spring finding indoor the math on top is quite unusual the remains of a real ancient spring yeah this is quite unique you [Music] all the evidence points to this mountain is Mount Sinai where according to the Bible the words now edged in the human imagination were first heard I am God your God who brought you out of Egypt from the place of slavery thou shalt not have any other God before me thou shalt not represent such gods by any carved statue or picture do not take the name of God your Lord in vain remember the Sabbath and keep it holy honor your mother and father do not commit murder do not commit adultery do not steal do not testify is a false witness against your neighbor and do not be envious of your neighbor’s house and do not covet your neighbor’s wife according to the Bible Moses wrote the Ten Commandments on stone tablets and placed them in a golden box the Ark of the Covenant he then built a portable temple at the base of the mountain a tabernacle is a place to worship the God of Israel and is a home for the holy ark the following model of the holy Tabernacle has been created to the exact specifications provided in the book of Exodus at the time of the exodus as you neared the entrance you would have come to a screen seven meters high according to ancient Jewish sources the screen was decorated by winged lions or Griffin’s figures usually associated with ancient Greece only priests were allowed inside the courtyard and here there was a four and a half meter high altar for sacrificial animals in a daily ritual priests carried animals up the ramp then the blood of the sacrifices anointed the horns of the altar in the back of the courtyard was the tabernacle the house of God only Moses his brother Aaron and Aaron’s sons entered it here beyond another tapestry embroidered with Griffin’s were golden ritual objects and in the back was the holy of holies in it there was only one object the ultimate object the Ark of the Covenant no one knows exactly what the Ark of the Covenant looked like the Bible claims that it was designed by God himself to house the ten commandments [Music] based on descriptions in the book of Exodus people have attempted to reconstruct it complete with gold caring poles the golden cover crowned by birds whichever way it looked what is clear is that it was an exquisite work of gold the Bible says that a tribe called Dan helped to craft the golden Ark is it a coincidence that Homer calls the people buried at Mycenae Dan oi perhaps among the golden objects found by Schliemann at Mycenae there is an image of the Ark made by the same Danites and crafted the box that once held the Ten Commandments incredibly among all the golden objects there is a piece of priestly jewelry that goes unnoticed and unheralded so far experts have assumed that this is a depiction of a single object but we believe that it’s a 3500 year old image of three legendary objects viewed head-on here we can clearly see the holy altar the ramp of the tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant at last we know what the Ark of the Covenant looked like [Music] more than that we now know how the holy objects appeared when seemed from the Holy of Holies looking out until now the only person who would have seen these objects from this perspective is Moses in the beginning of this journey we asked the question is the biblical Exodus fact or fiction I think a compelling case has been made that the Exodus is a historical fact here we were shown for the first time ancient hieroglyphics and stone carvings depicting the parting of the sea we saw the biblical plagues deciphered and the archaeological and geological proof that they actually occurred we even trekked to the real Mount Sinai and then Jakob ovitch revealed what is arguably the discovery of the millennium a gold image of the Ark of the Covenant but I think we must stand our journey as we started with a question did all this happen as a result of massive geological events triggered by nothing more than nature or were the earthquakes the volcanoes and the tsunamis caused by divine intervention when God decided to free a nation from slavery and forge a new covenant with humanity [Music] [Music] [Music] 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